Thomas Milton Tinney, Sr.
2017-11-15 03:39:59 UTC
The answer is: No. Are there any credible ways to use the genetic data from mtDNA or Y chromosomes in individual ancestry testing, that will supplement independently, historical studies of genealogy? Again, the clear answer is: No. "Although the tests themselves are reliable, the interpretations are unreliable and strongly influenced by cultural and other social forces." "While the limitations of the genetic-ancestry tests are complex, here we focus on a few key points: (1) the social construction of ethnic labels that are being mapped onto biology; (2) the limited geographical and cultural representation of the world’s people in existing genetic databases; and (3) the incomplete, fragmented record of the past in any person’s DNA." Reference is also made to: "Who's More Irish, You or Your Sibling? The Surprising Science Behind the Inheritance of Ethnicity" It is a given, that "most siblings have a different mix of ethnicities due to the random nature of genetic inheritance". "If you go back far enough, there is a chance that you inherited no DNA from a particular ancestor." This uncertainty, that cannot be accurately calibrated, professionally invalidates answers to specific questions. Different segments of DNA are randomly passed down to create an individual's DNA. This shows up in variations found in the DNA of siblings, as well as in the fact that everyone has a different set of finger prints, or that in the fact that "everyone's eyes are wired differently". "DNA determines the color and structure of the iris, but its random pits, furrows, swirls, and rifts occur during fetal development, which makes every iris unique (even your two irises don’t match each other)." "Bodyprint . . . touch sensor . . . scan users’ body parts, such as ears, fingers, fists, and palms by pressing them against the display." "Cheilosopy deals with the study of elevations and depressions which form a characteristic pattern on the external surface of the lips. Lip grooves are considered to be unique and analogous to the fingerprint." "New oral features can be considered unique as a fingerprint". In fact there are "11 Body Parts Researchers Will Use to Track You". "Are toeprints unique, like fingerprints?" "Yes they are." "You're more unique than you know". . . . even identical twins have different DNA. Using second generation genome sequencing, . . . "you find that once that fertilized egg splits there are random mutations that are happening and that can be used to identify differences between twins." So the real question is: "Are Fingerprint Patterns Inherited?" Etc.? "There is an inheritance component to fingerprint patterns but the genetics of how they are inherited are complicated. (Multiple genes are involved.) Fingerprints are also affected by a person's environment while developing in the womb." . . . "Because each person's fingerprints are unique, and not even identical twins—who share the same DNA—have identical fingerprints, this also shows that fingerprints are not completely controlled by genetics." Which then brings up the final question that is not being asked generationally; namely, "Are genetics completely controlled by genetics?" The answers come: "During pregnancy, cells from the fetus cross the placenta and enter the mother's body, where they can become part of her tissues." "The mother's body accumulates cells from each baby--and potentially functions as a reservoir, transferring cells from the older sibling into the younger one and forming more elaborate microchimeras." Studies show that DNA has changes as people age, in DNA methylation, linked to diseases like cancer and autoimmune disorders. "Mitochondrial circulating DNA (m-cirDNA) was also elevated in patients with cancer and disorders associated with massive cell damage, such as acute ischemic stroke"; remembering, at the same time, that it is Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that is passed down almost unchanged from a mother to her children, allowing tracing of maternal ancestry; apparently now to be adjusted by health and age issues, as well as more elaborate microchimeras. "In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible." In fact, "Genes May Be Linked To Tooth Decay, Gum Disease", noted by using the only one of a kind, University of Pittsburgh dental registry and the DNA Repository. Gait on.